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OPISTHOBRANCH NEMSLETTER Volume 13, Number 4, Page 16 

/* tor «iJ 

The actual stability of the diet species is unknown, therefore making it K 

difficult to test Miller's food dependency relationship. 

LITERATURE CITED: Aieska & Nybakken (1976) 0N9692; Behrentz (193D ON207; 
Garstang (1890) ON893; Miller ( 1 962 ) ■ ON 1502 ; Nybakken (1974) ON6550; 
Nybakken (1978) ON2506; Renouf (1915) ON1887; Thompson (1957) ON2167; 
Thompson (1958) ON2169; Thompson (1961a) 0N2175; Thompson ( 1 9 6 1 b ) ON2176; 
Thompson (1964) 0N2178 


The OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER has established an editorial board. All 
papers submitted for publication are subject to review. Citations for all 
'•papers" published in the OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER to date are included in 
this issue. If readers feel additional material shoul*d be "cited" please let 
me know. 

The drawings in ON !2(T2):38 were all photo reductions of drawings by Dr. 
Kikutaro Baba. 

I intend to mail issues of the OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER with a cover wrap 
similar to that used on the last issue. If anyone is experiencing damage 
from postal handling please let me know. I will try to find something better. 
Addressing and licking envelopes is a real pain. 

The March issue of volume thirteen was mislabeled as issue 2. I apologize 
for the error. The page numbers are correct. One of the beauties of a 
computer is that it allows you to make mistakes much more efficiently. 

I have been keeping most of my opisthobranch papers and microfiche in 
storage for the past five years. This makes it very difficult to find some 
papers when copies are requested. I hope to have my office set up within 
the next two months or so. Please bear with me. If I cannot find a 
requested paper I will try to list it in the ON so that someone else can help 
the requestor. 


Airmail postage and handling for Dave Behrens opisthobranch book is 
$6.00. Surface mail postage is $2.00. Copies are still available from the 
ON at $14.95 each plus postage. 


2493 ALTIMIRA, CARLOS & J0AND0MENEC ROS, August 1979- Algunos moluscos 
marinos de las Islas Canarias. [Some marine molluscs of the Canary Islands] 
VIERAEA, 8-(1):3-12, figs., 1-3; 1 tbl. [Spanish; English abstract; 9 
opisthobranch specie sj 

2494 BEHRENS, DAVID W., February 1981. A Color Variation in Chromodoris 
macfarlandl ( Nudibranchia: Doridacea). OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER, 13(2):5; 
fig. 1. 

2495 BEHRENS, DAVID W., 1980 (March, 1981). A Review of the Literature on 
the Opisthobranch Fauna of San Francisco Bay. OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER, 
12(4-12):34-37, fig-.- 1, tbl. 1. 

2496 BLEAKMKI, J. SHERMAN, September 1973- Collecting Nudibranchs in Nova 

2497 BRIDGES, CECILIA B., September 1973- Ecology and Larval Development 
of Phyllaplysia taylori Dall. OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER, 5(9):50. 

2498 CASE, ROBERT M., August 1972. An Ecological Study of Stiliger 
fuseovittata (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia). MS THESIS, California State 
Univ^r*sit*v Too 17 f p y f f* i cr ^ 

2499 CRA'NE, SANDRA, September 1973- Vital Stains: A Marking Technique for 
Nudibranchs. OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER, 5(9):56. 

2500 EDMUNDS, MALCOLM, September 1972. Catriona - Trinchesia. 
OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER, 4(9):47-48; 4 figs. 

2501 GREENE, RICHARD W., September 1973- Determination of Photosynthetic 
Function in Algal and Chloroplast Symbionts in Opisthobranchs . 

2502 KRESS, A., October 1975- Observations During Embryonic Development in 
the Genus Doto (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia). OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER, 
7(10 ):50. [Abstract of ON #9548] 

2503 LANCE, JAMES R., December 1980. Splendor in the Sea. DISCOVER, The 
Newsmagazine of Science, 1(3):58-63, color photos. [15 species]. 

2504 LEMCHE, HENNING, August 15, 1972. Names of Opisthobranchs placed on 
the Official Lists and Indexes before 1972. OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER, 

2505 LONG, STEVEN J., September 1973- Accumulation and Dissemination of 
Information. OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER, 5(9):60. [Abstract] 

2506 NYBAKKEN, J., 1978. Abundance, Diversity and Temporal Variability in a 
California Intertidal Nudibranch Assemblage. MARINE BIOLOGY, 45:129-146. 

a3 \ °i 

OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER Volume 13, Number 5, Page 17 
May 1981 

Zool. DepS 


Illustration at right 
Trapania dalva Marcus, 1972 
Drawing by Eveline Marcus 


The Opisthobranch Newsletter is published by Steven J. Long, 359 Roycrott 
Ave, Long Beach. California 9 08 1 4, USA. Telephone 213-439-2028. 
Subscription rates are $15.00 per year for individuals and $17-50 per year 
for institutions. Back volumes are available at $10.00 per volume. Microfiche 
(24X reduction) of back volumes are $5.00 per volume. My records show that 
your subscription is paid for the following years: ^1 9 7 6, ^1 977, 0978, 

_><1 979 , JS_19o0, _^<_1 9 8 T 1982. Please contact me immediately if you feel this 

is incorrect. 


The primary purpose of the Opisthobranch Newsletter is to assist people 
working with Opisthobranch mollusks. The newsletter has been published 
since 1969 and was inititated to facilitate research and information 
exchange by researchers and interested amateurs in all parts of the world. 
Personal notes on researches, trips, etc.; notices of meetings; recent 
publications concerning Opisthobranchs ; and short articles on 
Opisthobranchs are included in issues. In addition, I try to include 
bibliographical citations on every paper noting Opisthobranchs. 


I am very dependent on input from subscribers to maintain the information 
content of the Opisthobranch Newsletter. Notes and articles should be 
addressed to Steven J. Long at the address given above. Please include 
scientific meeting dates and other information even if they may be of only 
local interest. If material is specifically not for publication please note 
that fact. 

Articles for publication should be typewritten and laid out exactly as you 
would like them published including any drawings at the final size and placed 
where you would like them in the text. It is suggested that you use a "cut 
and paste" Xerox copy of the materials to lay out your format and include 
the originals to any drawings and typescript separately. 

I currently have very limited resources for photo reduction so the 
illustrations should be sent to fit on my normal page format. The text will 
all be put into my computer text editing system manually and then printed out 
automatically. Publications will be reviewed by one or more of your peers 
for style and content. If time permits you will receive a galley proof for 
your review prior to publication. Please refer to the biological style 
manuals for basic guidance and to the past issues of the Opisthobranch 
Newsletter for examples of acceptable citation and drawing formats. Note 
that I have decided to use complete bibliographical citations with papers 
published in the Opisthobranch Newsletter. 


From David Behrens (416 Lilac Drive, Los Osos, CA 93402): "Hurst (1967) 
reports Catriona aurantia from Puget Sound. Has, C. aurantia (now C. gymnota 
been collected since, or is it possible that Hurst's critter was Catriona 
columbiana (=C. alpha)? Miller (1977) reports Catriona alpha from New 
Zealand. Although Williams & Gosliner (1980) refute this species as not 
being conspecific with C. alpha by Baba & Hamatani, 1963, I am curious to 
know whether there are other possible examples of species occurring circum- 
Pacificly. To my knowledge Diaulula sandiegensis and Aldisa sanguinea may 
have the widest range, of those species recognized, to occur on both shores. 

OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER Volume 13, Number 5, Page 18 

I am unaware, however, of any species occurring in both the north and south 
Pacific. How about co-occurrences between Hawaii and California? None I 


Thanks to all of you who have sent commemorative and other colorful 
stamps over the years. They are still much appreciated. Thanks to Dr. I.S. 
Roginskaya, Dr. Eveline Marcus, Annetrudi Kress, N. B. Eales, Jim Lance, Dave 
Behrens, Kerry B. Clark, Don Cadien, and others who have recently 
contributed material for the ON. Keep it coming! 

I realize that the current citation format is not quite as readable as the 
older one but my word processing system makes it very useful to indent in 
the fashinon now used. Perhaps I will be able to change later. I will 
attempt to set up for two column printing soon if I am able to overcome a 
basic machine problem. 

I work hard trying to keep typographical and other errors out of the ON. 
If you note any please contact me immediately. I would far rather have 25 
people remind me than let an error go by indefinitely. I am especially 
interested in duplicate citation numbers. I will try to include a complete 
list of deleted citation numbers in a future issue of the ON. 


Eveline Marcus will be spending September in the USA again this year 
including visits with Trish Morse, Harald Reader, and Robert Work. If you 
have the opportunity to be in Washington D.C., Massachusetts, or Florida 
during that month contact Eveline soon and see if your schedules can 
coincide . 

Eveline writes: "I am fighting with the Pleurobranchaea of the Western 
Atlantic; the older bibliography, also our own, is often unsatisfactory; and 
preparation of the absolutely necessary male organ takes time. Already old 
Vayssiere noted that in his good paper 1901. 

From Jeff Hamann: "Had a fantastic trip to Saudi Arabia with my Dad in 
March. Found 39 species of Opisthobranchs single-handedly in two weeks. 
Conditions were perfect & I brought home some great pictures. 

I went to L.A. Bay [Mexico] with Hans [Bertscn] and Jim [Lance] last 
weekend & had a treacherous time. We flew in and blew a tire on landing but 
kept it on the strip somehow. Then the front shock went out later & we bent 
$1,800.00 worth of propeller in the dirt. We scrounged up enough tools to 
repair the tire & bent the prop back with rocks & made it home. We collected 
one morning and the three of us got 28 species." 

William Jaeckel is presently compiling a short note on distribution 
extensions from Humboldt County, California. If anyone has additional 
records for inclusion please contact him. 

From Ian Loch: "Bill Rudman has been working through a series of papers 
on aeolids associated with soft corals, the scleractinian Porites, the 
zoanthid Palyttaoa and a few odds and ends. One is an odd little tergipedid 
with branched cerata which mimic the polyps of a hydroid living on sponge. A 
few odd aeolid-like arminids got involved on Porites and Heliopora. The soft 
coral associates involved work on the utilization of zooxanthellae by the 
aeolids and adaptations for this. Fortunately, at Sydney University, Ros 
Kinde has been looking at chloroplast utilization by local sacoglossans , so 
expertise is on tap. One of her students is finishing a Ph. D. project on 
some local Elysia with some interesting observations on changing food 
sources. Another has recently commenced a M. Sc. on zooxanthellae 
utilization by Pteraeolidia ianthina. 

Bill has gone back to working mainly on chromodorid s, as he has a grant 
for a research assistant for this. Geoff Avern, the research assistant, is 
also starting a M. Sc . project on life histories of a couple of local 
chromodorid s. 

Other local post graduate work has Bob Rose writing up a Ph. D. project on 
reproductive strategies and developmental types of some local dorids, and 
another is screening for a suitable beast to do a Ph. D. project on 
biochemical inducers of larval settlement. Most of these projects unearth 
nasty taxonomic problems, even the Pteraeolidia ianthina comes in an albino 

Somewhat belated news is that The Australian Museum produced a 1981 
calendar featuring opisthobranchs. The 20-25cm photos on black background 
are Hydatlna pfaysis, Stiliger, Elysia, Berghia, PhyllocLesmium poindimiei, 

- llodesmium, Chromodoris, Hypselodoris obscura, Halgerda aurantiomacul 
No •'dorls gardineri, Phyllidia ocellata and Ceratosoaa brevicaudatum. I 
gather some are still available if anyone is interested. Sherman Bleakney 
visited for several days, recouperating from an illness and looking at a few 
local Sacoglossans. Local collecting continues to produce a stream of 

OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER Volume 13, Number 5, Page 19 

interesting (and undescribed ) opisthobranchs . Bill seldom has to leave his 
microscope with the volume of animals the activities of the students, 
interested amateurs and other museum staff generate. The Malacology Dept. 
staff did spend several days in October at Port Stephens, about 100 miles 
north of Sydney, where about 50 species were collected, including a live 


Mari Lehmer, Bodega Bay Marine Lab, P.O. Box 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 


Book Reviews of W.M. Farmer's "Sea-Slug Gastropods" and T. Gascoigne's "Fine 
Dissection of Ascoglossans" are published in the April, 1981 issue of THE 

2507 BEHRENS, DAVID W., April 1981. Bimodal Seasonality in Melibe leonina 
(Gould, 1852). Opisthobranch Newsletter, 13 (4 ) :15-16 ; fig. 1. 

2508 BONAR, D.B., 1978. Ultrastructure of a cephalic sensory organ in 
larvae of the gastropod Phestilla sibogae (Aeolidacea, Nudibranchia ) . 
Tissue and Cell, 10:153-165- 

5957 BRUEL, L., 1904. UPber die Geschlechts- und Verdauungsorgane von 
Calipnylla mediierranea Costa. Ihr morphologischer Wert und inre 
physiologische Leistung. Habilitationsschrif t, Halle, 117 pp. 

February, 1981. Chloroplast Symbiosis in a non-Elysiid Mollusc, Costaslella 
lilianae Marcus (Hermaeidae: Ascoglossa ( =Sacoglossa ) : Effects of 
Temperature. Light Intensity, and Starvation on Carbon Fixation Rate. The 
Biological Bulletin, 160 ( 1 ) :43-54 ; figs. 1-10; tbl. 1. 

2510 CLARK, KERRY B. & KATHE R. JENSEN, 1981. A Comparison of Egg Size, 
Capsule Size, and Development Patterns in the Order Ascoglossa (Sacoglossa) 
(Mollusca: Opisthobranchia ) . International Journal of Invertebrate 
Reproduction, 3:57-64: tbls. 1-2. [32 spp.] 

2511 EMERY, D.G. & AUDESIRK, T.E., 1978. Sensory cells in Aplysia. Journal 
of Neurobiology, 9:173-179. 

2512 GALLOP, A., 1974. Evidence for the presence of a 'factor' in Elysia 
viridis which stimulates photosynthate release from its symbiotic 
chloroplasts. New Phytol., 83:445-450. 

2513 GALLOP, A., J. BARTR0P, & D.C'. SMITH, 1980. The biology of chloroplast 
acquisition by Elysia viridis. Proc. R- Soc. London, B. Biol. Sci., 207:335- 

2514 GASCOIGNE, T., 1980. Fine Dissection of Ascoglossans. Conchological 
Society of Great Britain, 31 PP-; 11 figs.; 2 pits. L Available from the author: 
16 York Grove, London, SE15 2NY, England; 1 pound British including postage 
with profits to the Conchological Society] 

2515 GOETZFRIED, A., 1977- A comparison of light dependence of 
photosynthesis in a sacoglossan Elysia tuca and its algal food Halimeda 
discoidea. M.S. Thesis, Florida Inst, of Technology, Melbourne, 43 pp. 

2516 HINDE, R. & D.C. SMITH, 1974. Chloroplast symbiosis and the extent to 
which it occurs in Sacoglossa (Gastropoda: Mollusca). Biol. J. Linn. Soc, 

2517 HINDE. R. & D.C. SMITH, 1975. Role of photosynthesis in the nutrition 
of the mollusK Elysia viridis. Biol. J. Linn. Soc, 7:161-171. 

2518 JENSEN, K.R., 1980. Factors affecting feeding selectivity in 
herbivouous sacoglossans . Ph. D. Dissertation, Florida Instxtute of 
Technology, Melbourne, 144 pp. ., ., 

2519 KREMER, B.P. & K. SCHMITZ, 1976. Aspects of l4 C0 ? -fixation by 
endosymbiotic rhodoplasts in the marine opisthobranchiate Hermaea bifica. 
MAR. BIOL., 34:313-316. 

2520 KRESS, ANNETRUDI, 19 81. A Scanning Electron Microscope Study of 
Notum Structures in some Dorid Nudibrancns (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia). 
Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 61:177- 
191; figs. 1-6. [Rostanga rubra, jorunna toientosa, Onchldoris sparsa, 0. 
pusilla, 0. muricata, 0. bilamellata, Aegires punctilucens, Archidoris 
pseudoargus, Acanthodoris pilosa] 

2521 MARCUS, EVELINE, September 1973- Preparation of Opisthobranchs for 
Scientific Purposes. Opisthobranch Newsletter, 5(9):4o-49- 

,2522 MARCUS, EVELINE du B0IS-REYM0ND, 1979- 31 Mollusca Opisthobranchia. 
Re'sultats Scientif iques des Campagnes de la Calypso , r Fascicule XI. Campagne 
de la Calypso au large des Cotes Atlantiques de l'Ame'rique du Sud (1961- 
1962). 1:131-137; figs. 1-12. [French; English abstract] 

2523 MARCUS, EVELINE du B0IS-REYM0ND, 1979- On the Ideal Technique for 
Classifying Opisthobranchia. Opisthobranch Newsletter, 1 1 ( 4-6 ) : 9 - 1 . 

2524 MARCUS, EVELINE du B0IS-REYM0ND, 1980. Review of "Western Atlantic 
Elysiidae (Opisthobranchia Ascoglossa) with a description of a new Elysia 
species. Bulletin of Marine Science, 30(1):54-79; figs. 1-60. [Elysia macnaei 
no v. sp. ] 


13, Number 5, Page 20 

Galatea Opisthobranc 
Specimens of Opisthobranchia 

2525 MEYER, KANIAUL0N0 BAILEY, September, 1972 
Opisthobranch Newsletter, 4(9):48-49. 

2526 MIENIS, HENK K., October 1975- Type 
(including Pyramidellidae ) 
of Jerusalem. 1. Type Specim 
Opisthobranch Newsletter, 

2527 MIENIS, HENK K., 1976. A Review of the Occurrence of 
in the Mediterranean Sea. Opisthobrancb. 

ober 1975- Type Specimens of Opisthobranchia \^%yr " 
in the Zoological Museum of the Hebrew University '" 
mens of Taxa Described by Giorgio S. Coen. 
, 7(10):49-50. 


2528 NAVONI, L., 

2529 ORTEA, _J.A._, 

Indo-Pacif ic 
Newsletter, 8(9- 

1972. Der chemische Sinne der Nudibranchier (Gastropoda, 
Revue Suisse de Zoologie, 79:1333-1379- 
1979- Recommendation f> ~" «»»■■* *^ « - +v,~ a = =,««* «n «~» ~p 

Madrid., pp. 85-93; 

2535 ROS, JOANDOMENEC, 1980. Estrategias ecologicas en los 
Opisthobranquios . Com. Prim. Congr. Nac. Malac 

4; tbls. 1-2. [Spanish; English summary] 

2536 SCOTESE, J., 1978 
retina of the 

cytochemical and histoch. 
Technology, Melbourne, 78 pp 

figs. 1- 
f the 
te of 

cnnoxogy, nexoourne, /o pp. 

2537 SIMPSON, STEPHEN, [Photography by James Lance] 

,000 Hues Under the Sea. Southern California Seaco 

Lor photos, [plus 1 photo on page 4] 

February, 1 
ast, 2(3):3 


., 1972. An' Annotated Checklist of the Nudibranchs and 
West Coast of North America 


Opisthobrancb Newsletter, 


25~3^**sYH0~N. "(JALE G, 
their Allies from the 
4(10-11 ):53-79- 

2539 STEPHENS, LINDA L. & J.E. BLANKENSHIP, September 1973- A Technique 
for Rearing Opisthobranch Larvae. Opisthobranch Newsletter, 5(9 ):51- 

2540 STIRTS, H.M., 1980. Chloroplast symbiosis in tectibranch ascoglossans 
(Opisthobranchia: Gastropoda). Ph. D. dissertation, Florida Institute of 
Technology, Melbourne, 120 pp. 

2541 STORCH, V., 1971. Biogene Amine in Rezeptororganen von Gastropoden 
( Prosobranchia, Opisthobranchia). Zeitsehrift fflr Zellf orschung und 
mikroskopische Anatomie, 115:94-99. 

2542 STORCH, V. & U. WELSCH, 1969- Uber Bau und Funktion der 
Nudibranchier-Rhinophoren. Zeitsehrift fflr Zellf orschung und 
mikroskopische Anatomie, 97:528-536. 

2543 SWITZER-DUNLAP, M. f 1975. Symbiosis be*"" 00 " alffal 
the mollusc Plakobranchus ocellat 
Opisthobranchia). Ph. D. 

Griffithsia flosculosa (Rhodophyta; and Hermaea bifida (Gastrop 
Opisthobranchia). Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli, 39:116-120. 

2545 THOMPSON, T.E., April 1, 1981. Redescription of a Rare North Atlantic 
Doridacean Nudibranch, Aegires sublaevis Odhner. The Veliger, 23(4):315- 
316, 2 text figs 

2546 TRENCH, 
Lond. B 

2547 TRENCH, R.K 
siphonaceous algae 

iosis between algal chloroplasts and 
van Hassell (Sacoglossa: 

ertation, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, 
. Symbiosis between the chloroplasts of 
lophyta) and Hermaea bifida (Gastropoda: 

. 7l»n »t ~ i -: on . 1-1 C ton 

167 pp 

RICHARD K., J.E. BOYLE & D.C. SMITH, 1973- The association 

a viridis. II. 
Proc. R. Soc. 

OLHORST, 1976. The stability of chloroplasts from 
in symbiosis with sacoglossan molluscs. New 

TRENCH, RICHARD K., J.E. BOYLE & D.C. SMITH, 1973- The at 
chloroplasts of Codium fragile and the mollusc Elysi; 
last ultrastructure and carbon fixation in E. viridis. 
. Biol. Sci., 184:63-81. 
TRENCH, R.K. & S. OLHORST, 1976. The stability of chloro 


June 1981 

Volume 13, Number 6, Page 21 

Illustration at right 

Tarimga alvicia Marcus & Marcus, 1967 

Drawing by D.W. Behrens 

The Oplsttaobranch Newsletter is published by Steven J. Long, 359 Roycroft Ave, Long Beach, 
California 90814, USA. Telephone 213-439-2028. Subscription rates are $15-00 per year for 
individuals and $17.50 per year for institutions. Back volumes are available at $10.00 per 
volume. Microfiche (24x reduction) of back volumes are $5-00 per volume. 


Cajon, CA 92020. 

The geographical ranges of fourteen species of Opisthobranch molluscs are extended beyond 
those reported by Behrens (1980) and McDonald & Nybakken (1981). The author acknowledges the 
assistance of David W. Behrens in the preparation of this paper. 

Order Pleurobranchomorpha 

Tylodima fuumgima Puerto Vallarta, Sonora, Mexico 

February 26, 1979 Collected below the thermocline at 30' 
Order Nudibranchia 
Suborder Doridacea 
Arc hid oris momttereyensis Punta Cabras, Mexico 

June 30, 1980 Intertidal 
Chromodoris macfarlandi Cedros Island, Mexico 

August 24, 1980 10-20' 
Hallaxa chani La Jolla, California 

June, 1980 Intertidal 
Suborder Dendronotacea 
Dendronotus subramosus Punta Cabras, Mexico 

June 30, 1980 Intertidal 
Doto amyra Punta Cabras, Mexico 

June 30, 1980 Intertidal 
Doto kya Punta Cabras, Mexico 

August 24, 1980 60' 
Suborder Arminacea 
Antiopella barbarensis Loreto, Baja California, Mexico 

April 24, 1979 30' 
Suborder Aeolidacea 
Facelina stearnsi Isla Cedros, Mexico 

August 24, 1980 10' 
Flabellinopsis iodinea Bahia de Los Angeles, Baja California, Mexico 

Collected at 50', below the thermocline. 
Precuthona divae Point Loma, California 

July 4, 1980 70' 
Phidiana pugnax Punta Cabras, Mexico 

June 30, 1980 Intertidal 
Spurilla olivae La Jolla, California i 

learly, common 
Trinehesia (Cuthona) lagunae Punta Cabras, Mexico 

June 30, 1980 Intertidal 


From Jim Lance: "Some months ago I had the good fortune to be included in a Scripps 
Institution of Oceanography expedition to Islas Revillagigedos — west Mexico's only oceanic 
island chain. This volcanic group, about 1500 km south of San Diego and 600 km west of 
mainland Mexico, consists of four principal islands with one, San Benedicto, having blown its